HOW THE EARTH
The overall picture of environmental sustainability
Understanding wholeness -> visio -> hope -> purpose -> effective work ->*n-> effective world in important issues
Juho Satti, entrepreneur
This is how the Earth works Group Oy
Northern Savonia Finland
+358 41 436 7272
Copyright © 2014-2018 Juho Satti and This is how the Earth works Group Oy. All rights reserved.
Discussion on the environment is fragmented. It lacks an understanding of the full picture. When it comes to the environment, we can live on Earth for as long as the sun shines, provided that we take care of four things.
First, we must ensure that non-renewable raw materials and plant nutrients, the most critical of which will be phosphor in the near future, are circulating.
Second, we must make sure that renewable raw materials are used in line with growth.
Third, we must take care that energy is produced with renewable means. There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year.
Finally, fourth: when we make sure that chemicals, genetic engineering and nuclear radiation do not intervene too much with the health of our own, there are no faults as such a life.
In addition, technological development and the expected stagnation of global population growth within a few decates, will help to achieve the above goals.
Table of contents
Introduction to the This is how the Earth works – philosophy 8
A User's Guide for this webpage 10
1.Reuse of plant nutrients and non-renewable raw materials 11
1.1 Plant nutrients 11
1.1.1 Food 11
184.108.40.206 Current state 11
220.127.116.11 How to close the nutrient cycle 11
18.104.22.168.1 Eater 12
22.214.171.124.2 Farming 12
1.1.2 Other than food 12
126.96.36.199 Bioenergy, renewable materials 12
1.2 Non-renewable raw materials 12
1.2.1 Metals 12
1.2.2 Minerals 12
1.2.3 Plastics, petroleum based 12
188.8.131.52 In the current state, burning food packaging plastic in the right kind good power station is in many cases better option than recycling 12
1.2.4 Current state, reuse of non-renewable raw materials 13
1.2.5 How to close the cycle 13
2.Renewable raw materials are used in line with growth 13
2.1 Current state 13
2.1.1 In many places situation is quite a good, but those things below need always keep an eye on 13
184.108.40.206 Erosion 13
220.127.116.11 Desertification 13
18.104.22.168 Carbon escape from the soil 13
22.214.171.124 Nutrients 13
126.96.36.199 Overfishing 13
2.2 Sustainable boosting of grow 14
2.2.1 Biological nitrogen fixation 14
2.2.2 Nutrient cycling and nutrient adding 14
2.2.3 Adding carbon to soil 14
2.2.4 Water to the dry areas 14
188.8.131.52 Tying the humidity of the air 14
184.108.40.206 Using seawater and sun 14
2.2.5 Aquaculture and boosting grow conditions in seas and lakes 14
3.Energy is produced with renewable mean 14
3.1 Energy 15
3.1.1 Where energy come from, and direct natural effects 15
220.127.116.11 Sunshine 15
18.104.22.168.1 Heat 15
22.214.171.124.2 Light 15
126.96.36.199 Moon's and sun's gravitation 15
188.8.131.52.1 Tide 15
184.108.40.206.2 Crunching the Earths crust 15
220.127.116.11.3 Ocean currents (partly) 15
18.104.22.168 Atom 15
3.1.2 Why energy is needed 15
22.214.171.124 Life conditions on Earth 15
126.96.36.199.1 Heat and light from sun 15
188.8.131.52.1.1 Photosyntesis 15
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Oxygen 16
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168Ozone layer 16
22.214.171.124.1.1.2 Food 16
126.96.36.199.1.2 Rain 16
188.8.131.52.1.3 Wind 16
184.108.40.206.1.4 Ocean current 16
220.127.116.11 Human convert energy in forms what needed 16
18.104.22.168.1 Heat 16
22.214.171.124.2 Move 16
126.96.36.199.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation 16
188.8.131.52.4 Electricity 17
184.108.40.206.4.1 As way to move energy 17
220.127.116.11.4.2 Independent applications 17
18.104.22.168.4.2.1 Electronics 17
22.214.171.124.5 Energy use is just mainly combination of heating, moving, lighting and other electromagnetic radiation and electronics 17
126.96.36.199 The ways in which energy is convert into the necessary forms 17
188.8.131.52.1 Heat, making and harvesting 17
184.108.40.206.1.1 Burning 17
220.127.116.11.1.1.1 Fuels, sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124Bioenergy, new sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52Fossil fuels, old sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17
184.108.40.206.1.2 Harvesting sun heat 18
220.127.116.11.1.3 Atom 18
18.104.22.168.1.4 Friction 18
22.214.171.124.2 Move, making and harvesting 18
126.96.36.199.2.1 Making move through heat, heat engines 18
188.8.131.52.2.1.1 Based in combustion gas 18
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11Internal combustion Piston engines 18
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124Gas turbine 18
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52Jet engine 18
184.108.40.206.2.1.2 Based in steam 18
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168Steam engine 18
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199Steam turbine 18
188.8.131.52.2.1.3 Combinations 18
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11Closed-cycle gas turbines 18
18.104.22.168.2.1.4 Others 18
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199Stirling engine 18
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206Thermo-magnetic motor 19
220.127.116.11.2.2 Other than heat engines 19
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124Molecular motor 19
126.96.36.199.2.2.2 Harvesting move which is formed in Earth's heat engine 19
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206Moving water 19
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.3Marine current power 19
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199Moving air 19
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.1Sail and kite 19
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.2Wind power 19
22.214.171.124.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation, making 19
126.96.36.199.3.1 Light, making 19
188.8.131.52.3.2 Incandescent light 20
184.108.40.206.3.2.1 Flames 20
220.127.116.11.3.2.2 Glowing piece of hot material 20
18.104.22.168.3.3 Light-emitting diodes (LED) 20
22.214.171.124.3.4 Electric discharge in gases 20
126.96.36.199.3.5 Luminescence 20
188.8.131.52.3.5.1 Fluorescence 20
184.108.40.206.3.6 Chemiluminescence 20
220.127.116.11.3.6.1 Bioluminescence 20
18.104.22.168.3.7 Other electromagnetic radiation, making 20
22.214.171.124.3.7.1 Radio waves 20
126.96.36.199.3.7.2 Microwaves 20
188.8.131.52.3.7.3 Infrared 20
184.108.40.206.3.7.4 Ultraviolet 21
220.127.116.11.3.7.5 X-rays 21
18.104.22.168.3.7.6 Gamma rays 21
22.214.171.124.3.7.7 Thermal radiation 21
126.96.36.199.4 Electricity, making 21
188.8.131.52.4.1 Move rotating the generator 21
184.108.40.206.4.1.1 Electric generators 21
220.127.116.11.4.2 From radiation 22
18.104.22.168.4.2.1 Light 22
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199Solar cell 22
188.8.131.52.4.2.2 Other radiation 22
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11Betavoltaic device 22
18.104.22.168.4.3 From chemical reactions 22
22.214.171.124.4.3.1 Fuel cell 22
126.96.36.199.4.4 From the temperature differences 22
188.8.131.52.4.4.1 Thermoelectric effect 22
184.108.40.206.4.5 Piezoelectricity 22
220.127.116.11.4.6 Pyroelectricity 22
18.104.22.168.4.7 Galvanic cell 22
22.214.171.124.4.8 Triboelectric effect 22
3.2 Current state 22
3.2.1 World energy consumption (2015) 22
126.96.36.199 Oil (33%) 22
188.8.131.52 Coal (30%) 23
184.108.40.206 Natural Gas (24%) 23
220.127.116.11 Hydro (7%) 23
18.104.22.168 Nuclear (4%) 23
22.214.171.124 Others (Renewables) (2%) 23
3.3 Renewable production sources 23
3.3.1 Sun 23
126.96.36.199 Sun directly 23
188.8.131.52.1 Solar power 23
184.108.40.206.2 Artificial photosynthesis 24
220.127.116.11.3 Solar thermal collectors 24
18.104.22.168.4 Temperature differences 24
22.214.171.124 Bio 24
126.96.36.199 Wave 24
188.8.131.52 Wind 24
184.108.40.206 Hydro 24
220.127.116.11 Tidal 24
18.104.22.168 Marine current 24
22.214.171.124 Marine power 24
126.96.36.199 Geothermal heat pump 24
3.3.2 Energy efficiency 25
3.3.3 (Geothermal) 25
3.3.4 DIY Home made renewable energy 25
3.4 Consumption source of energy 25
3.4.1 Primary sector 26
188.8.131.52 Farm 26
184.108.40.206 Forestry 26
220.127.116.11 Mining, include also oil and gas 26
3.4.2 Housing 26
18.104.22.168 Heating and cooling 26
22.214.171.124 Lighting 26
126.96.36.199 Cookery 26
188.8.131.52 Bath 26
184.108.40.206 Laundering 26
220.127.116.11 Communication, media and entertainment 26
3.4.3 Manufacture of goods 26
18.104.22.168 Food 26
22.214.171.124 Clothes 26
126.96.36.199 Furnitures 26
188.8.131.52 Tools 26
184.108.40.206.1 Widely, from fork to wrench and from computer to industry robot 26
220.127.116.11 Means of transport 26
3.4.4 Building 26
18.104.22.168 Buildings 26
22.214.171.124 Roads 26
126.96.36.199 Water pipes 26
188.8.131.52 Electrical grid 26
184.108.40.206 Communication networks 27
220.127.116.11 Other infrastructure 27
3.4.5 Transportation 27
18.104.22.168 People 27
22.214.171.124.1 Everyday 27
126.96.36.199.2 Business trips 27
188.8.131.52.3 Holidays 27
184.108.40.206 Raw materials 27
220.127.116.11 Goods 27
18.104.22.168.1 Food 27
22.214.171.124.2 Drinks, include bottled water 27
126.96.36.199.3 Other 27
188.8.131.52 Information and communication 27
3.4.6 Services 27
184.108.40.206 Security 27
220.127.116.11 Healt care 27
18.104.22.168 Education 27
22.214.171.124 Entertainment 27
3.5 Other way divided 27
3.5.1 Electricity 27
3.5.2 Heating and cooling 28
126.96.36.199 World energy consumption in heating 28
188.8.131.52 World energy consumption in cooling 28
3.5.3 Transportation 28
184.108.40.206 World energy consumption in people transport 28
220.127.116.11 World energy consumption in material and goods cargo 28
3.5.4 How to replace fossil fuels in transport 28
18.104.22.168 Land transport 28
22.214.171.124.1 Cars 28
126.96.36.199.1.1 Electric cars 28
188.8.131.52.1.1.1 Environmental effects and energy efficiency as whole dipends how the electric is produced 28
184.108.40.206.1.1.2 How much more elecric production be needed 28
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1In best case energy efficiency as whole is very good 28
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.2Many ways to produse electric 28
188.8.131.52.1.1.3 Battery electric cars 28
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1Car batterys as part of elecric storage infrastructure 29
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124Is there enough battery materials 29
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52Charging infrastructure needed 29
184.108.40.206.1.1.4 Road-powered electric vehicle 29
220.127.116.11.1.2 Biogas 29
18.104.22.168.1.3 Liquid biofuels 29
22.214.171.124.1.4 a Fuel cell 29
126.96.36.199.1.5 Hybrids 30
188.8.131.52.1.6 Self made 30
184.108.40.206.2 Trains and loops 30
220.127.116.11.3 Other vehicles 30
18.104.22.168 Shipping 30
22.214.171.124 Aviation 30
3.6 Storage means 30
3.6.1 Batteries 30
3.6.2 Produse gas- or liguid fuels by electricity 30
3.6.3 Produse fuels by artificial photosyntesis 31
3.6.4 Timing of energy intencive manufacturing and other ways to minimize need to energy storage 31
3.6.5 Gravity 31
3.6.6 Bioenergy as a means of storage 31
3.6.7 Cold and heat storages 31
3.7 Other greenhouse gases 31
4.Healthy living environment 31
4.1 Chemicalisation 31
4.1.1 Chemical 31
126.96.36.199 Chemicals, pros and cons 31
188.8.131.52 What kind of healthy effects? 31
184.108.40.206 Chemical groups 31
220.127.116.11.1 Biocides 31
18.104.22.168.2 Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic (CMR) substances 31
22.214.171.124.3 Formaldehyde 32
126.96.36.199.4 Phthalate 32
188.8.131.52.5 Endocrine disruptor 32
184.108.40.206.6 Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) 32
4.1.2 Chemicals applications 32
4.2 Microplastics 32
4.2.1 As collector of toxins 32
4.2.2 Possible Independent healt effects 32
4.3 Otzone depletion 32
4.4 Acidification 33
4.4.1 Acid rain 33
4.4.2 Ocean acidification 33
4.5 Sufficient biodiversity 33
4.6 Nuclear radiation 33
4.6.1 Accidents 33
220.127.116.11 The consequences are serious but are they so serious and wide that at least I have been thought 33
4.6.2 Nuclear waste 33
18.104.22.168 Radiation last long but does it last dangerous so long as at least I have been thought 33
4.7 Genetic modification 33
4.7.1 Possibilities 34
4.7.2 Threats 34
4.8 Preparing for sudden changes 34
4.8.1 Volcanic winter 34
Overall pictures from world, made in Northern Savonia, Finland
Regards from Northern Savonia, Finland. Here we live, work, think, contemplate, implement and operate middle of wide forests, lakes and hills. Those forest include also quite sparse network of villages and towns. Here in Eastern Finland countryside is space to think. And people who can see the bigger picture.
Biggest problem in the world and how we solve it
Nowadays it is way too difficult to see big picture. And that is why it is too difficult to construct a clear enought vision to the future worth of pursuit. Whitout good visions, problems of the world may seem to be more difficult to solve, than they maybe really are. That is why future seems easily too hopeless for many people, atleast in western countries. And when world situation seems too hopeless it is difficult to find motivation to work for a better future. Hopeless is main reason to lack of motivation, and it is cause of massive loss of human potential, again, atleast here in western countries. So we make easier to see the bigger picture and that way to make better future seems possible. That is needed that enough big part of people get excited to build a better future worldwide. Environmental sustainable future is most important and most excited task to our time so that is why it is topic of this our first overall picture page.
Point of view in this page is keep and make human living conditions good now and in the future. So we do not for example protect too much wolfs and we have not too conserned about biodiversity, but we are interest in biodiversity when it means more healthy, safer or more comfortable human living conditions.
We also think (at the moment we are me and my Ltd):
Need to build a athmosphere and conditions (atleast here in Finland, and I guess it is needed many other places in worldwide too) where young people have easier to grow to full potential (start to lifelong growing), now it is easy to just entertain, but hard to acquire deep and wide understanding. Those people who read the traditional encyclopedia series of books get some kind of picture in the world (quite good actually), but in the internet it is nowadays very difficult to get. So internet need way better services.
Independent thinking is good, stong ideologies often narrows the thinking needlessly.
I do not like how strongly, politicians (also others than red-green) and media go along when new political left (quite a little group of people but they have been admirable intelligent and effective to make a impact in media and politicians) try to tell what is politically correct discussion topic and what is not. So atleast here in Finland our society need better conversation culture, especially discussion in some topics, like immigration.
Wide migrations is not good for the world, for example, every part of planet need their own people to build better future locally, but we need to do globally better and wider cooperation than nowadays. And make sure that everyone have sufficient accsess to knowledge.
Every country need healthy selfishness, foggy selflessness in state level is not effective or good way to safe the world. Resources are always limited and thats why those resources need to use effectively, from this point of view saving the world is not different than some other target.
Self made attitude is one important thing what we need more atleast here in Finland, things can do, there is available better and cheaper tools and parts than ever before, no matter do you want to build something material, or convey information. And always for example public financial support is not needed, this page and its content is an example of that.
Economic growth and technological development are not interesting independent goals, but they can be things that make easier to reach interesting independent goals.
The Finnish Defence Forces is based on a universal male conscription, so here soldiers are count of millions, (although total population is a few millions). We are soldiers too, in this company we fight for a better future. But we are also artists, and on these pages we paint the picture of world what we want.
We will always be challengers, no matter how big our company will grow, our goal is perfect world, so we never reach the goal, but we always fight for it, we will enjoy to this fight, we clear our way through thickets, we bush through winter storms and we look beautiful landscapes from the top of the sunny hills, -fjelds and -mountains and between our adventures we rest enough.
Nesessaries like food are not something should taken for granted, there can be hard conditions for farming in nowadays too, so it is always necessary to pay attencion security of supply food.
Thanks for those few people in the neighboring village and our village, who have share their views and give some advices (in general, and what coming topics to this webpage) those have been (and still are) eye-opening views and very good advices.
We remember and respect all of those people (each, no matter what they role have been according to their abilities and circumstances) who have build and defence here in Finland that substructure that we can try seek out the stars, it is our duty and privilege.
We are rebellions with gratitude
0n the 19th of May 2018
entrepreneur, This is how the Earth works Group Oy
LL.M, Business Student
member of The Centre Party of Finland
reservist lieutenant, The Finnish Border Guard, guerrilla
Make sure that you understand that first four-point grouping. Pay attention to connections between those four point, for example there is no need to mention heavy metal pollution in point four, becouse point one already stop those.
Before reading page further, pay attention to the table of contents, there you can see those groupings of different things, and wholeness what is consist of those groupings. And during read webpage further, go often back to table of contents, so you can keep overall picture in the mind.
This four-point grouping is ideal, but world need goal, it is very important to understand how world (earth+human) will work in ideal situation, but of course there will be long transitional period.
Webpage is under constuction, so there is not writing or links under every titles.
There is no any public financial support or other finansial support (atleast in this point 19.05.2018) get, to do this webpage and its content.
If your organisation might need some consulting- or training service in themes of this webpage, please call +358 41 436 7272 or send an email juho.satti(at)thisishowtheearthworks.fi ((at) = @).
Plant nutrients and non-renewable raw materials are not run out, only what we have to do, is that we have to reuse them effectively.
Plants need nutrients and plants are food for us and farm animals. So nutrients means food, and that is why they are extra important. There are mineral nutrients and nitrogen. Nitrogen can cycle directly or through the air. Especially in the near future we should keep an eye on recycling phosphorus. Plant growth need phosphorus, and there is not substitute for it. Nowadays fertilizer phosphorus is digested from mines and there is not so much useful reserves left. So it is necessary learn to recycle phosphorus effectively. Nowadays there is not good enought practices about nutrients cycling.
Nowadays in many countries and also globally breeding farm animals and fodder plant production are placed in separate areas, (This is in consequence of politics that does not take into account negative externalities, it is not farmers fault.) so it is not easy to bring nutrients back to the place of growth with animal manure. Other challenge is that although urban sewage include nutrients it include also harmful substances for example drug residues, detergents and PFOS:s, so it is not easy to recycle sewages nutrients back to field safely. It is absolutely necessary to keep agricultural soil clean.
It can be that ecomies of scale in agriculture loses its benefits in the future for the impact of robotisation and becouse the nutrient cycling become more and more important. So when cheap robots do the job and externalities are taken into account, small scale livestock farming can be economically profitable again, It will help nutrients recycling.
In the future for example in vitro meat production and plant growth in bioreactors can maybe make even personal nutrient cycle possible. But in that case too sun energy have to first store in sugars and others energetic requirements which are needed in grow and production in bioreactors. Those energetic requirements can be prodused by photosynthesis (see 22.214.171.124.1.1) either natural photosynthesis or artificial photosynthesis. Or some microbes can also multibly by using hydrogen as energy. And hydrogen can be produced electrically, like in this link. At least nowadays traditional field farming is in many cases quite effective way to exploit photosynthesis and produce food, due to big part of the work is done by ecosystem services like sunshine, rainwater and pollination, and so much devices are not needed.
What comes to sewage, atleast have to develop safer chemicals, and think possibilities of different collection system.
Using more biological nitrogen fixation will save energy, becouse industrial manufacturing of nitrogen need lot of energy. Some plants are ability to take nitrogen to the air. Or if there is available lot of cheap renewable energy industrial manufacturing of nitrogen is one option also in future.
Adding carbon to soil help nutrient cycling, and it also make soil better to tolerate drought and wetness. In addition it is one great potential way to prevent climate change.
Nutrient recycling is important also when grown bioenergy plants and renewable materials. So for example after burning wood it is necessary to bring ash back to forest. But in this case too have to be sure, that there is no harmful substances in that ash. There can be also possibilities to increase biological nitrogen fixation in the forests.
We can use non-renewable materials, metals, minerals and fossil based materials over and over again, so when we mine and use those materials, we have to make sure that we can reuse it again. But question is how we do it in paractice, how we increase the awareness and make pricing that take a notice negative externalities.
But power station need to be just right kind that burning household waste do not create for example dioxins, very harmful toxics.So have to be very careful what waste to burn and what kind of incinerator.
Too mutch non-renewable raw materials leaves the cycle.
But in some cases low recycling rate do not mean that those materials are lost, for example lot of old mobile phones are in people homes, those materials are not lost.
Pricing, recycle frendly desing, taxes, laws, awareness...
We can use renewable materials as much as they grow, and if we can systainably boost growing, we can use more. This part is close connected with part 1.1 Nutrients. As renewable raw materials here I mean plants in fields and forests, fish stocks and products of animal origin. Renevable raw materials can be used as food, bioenergy and goods manufacturing materials.
There is different kind of soils, shape of terrains, heavyness of rain, dryness et al. in the different parts of world so somewhere have to be very careful that soil do not go with water or wind.
See section 1.1
Tragedy of the commons
Biological nitrogen fixation
It is not easy to create long lasting below ground carbon, in many cases carbon escape during some years or so., but not in every cases.
Sounds utopistic at first, but there is some projects going on. Sahara have not been always desert.
And how water temperature in seas affect to growth of algae. James Lovelock write in his book the revenge of Gaia that seas warming might reduces the growth of algae.
There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year. So how we catch and storage this energy better than nowadays?
Meanwhile we learn to exploit and storage renewable energy better than nowadays world might need also nuclear power, but is it wise to build those plants as they are build now, or is it better to build those power stations out at sea, floating or submarine. Then possible radiation diluted in huge mass of water.
Some little part of deep geothermal energy.
Radioactive decay of some materials are going on in Earth crust and it made part of deep geothermal heat. Third source of geothermal heat is from the formation of the Earth.
Sun energy is formed in nuclear reaction too.
Without sun, planet Earth would be cold and dark place without oxygen and food. So most important energy is heat and light from sun.
Phptosyntesis is important becouse though photosyntesis here is oxygen to breath and food to eat.
Sun ultraviolet light make otzon from oxygen, and ozone layer protect us and other live against too much ultraviolet light from sun.
Plants need water and rain deliver it. Sun dissipate water and clouds be born Rain is reason why we get also groundwater to drink.
Wind carry the rain clouds in the different areas. Air flows also carry otzone to north and south parts of earth. Big part of ozone are formed near to the equator, becouse there is lot of ultraviolet light. In their own part winds also smoothes temperature differences in the planet.
Ocean currents smoothes temperature differences in the Earth. There is many forces that make that seawater movement. The rotation of the Earth turns ocean currents so thats one reason why they flow smoothly. In addition the tilt angle of the Earths axis is also big reason to the relatively low temperature differences in other parts of Earth, and it is the reason too why we have seasons.
Human collect and convert energy to its own needs. Body energy come from food. And human convert also other energy sources when outside the body heat, move and light is needed.
When sun is not heating enough it is time to make campfire, or turn on some more sofphisticated heating system. And when sun heating too much, there might be reason to cooling, but cooling is made from heat too, through evaporation.
Human have invented ways to move itself or goods also whitout using muscles. Also ways to move data faraway and back are developed.
When sun is not lighting we need some other light. And there is some other ways to use ligth too, like data moving in optical fiber.
Other electromagnetic radiation than light are used for example moving data wirelessly through the air. And microwave ovens, and radiography.
Electricity is handy way to transport energy,via electrical grid. Electric current is in itself move too, charged particles move. Electricity is easy to transform to heat, move and light when those needed. Atleast novadays electricity is not easy to store.
In addition there is some independent applications in electricity too, like electronics. Is there some other independen applications? Atleast electric fence to keep cows on the pasture.
There is not finally so many ways to use energy. When goods are manufacturing, you can shape metals and polymers by using heat and move. You can saw logs as boards and planks by using move. And by using electronics, those things can made by not using human brains in every single time. And when we need to move data, we do it by using light or other electromagnetic radiation.
126.96.36.199.1.1.1 Fuels, sun energy formed through photosynthesis
Burning fuels are formed through photosynthesis.
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206Bioenergy, new sun energy formed through photosynthesis
New sun energy, formed through photosynthesis, durin last summer or in the past decades. When used it is necessary to take care about nutrient cycling.
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168Fossil fuels, old sun energy formed through photosynthesis
Fossil fuels, very old sun energy also formed through photosynthesis.
Nuclear reactions release nuclear energy which are used to generate heat.
Last hundred – two hundred years and still nowadays transport and making electricity are strongly based in fossil fuels and Heat engines. Heat engines force usually moving cars, and spin many electric generators. Heat engines efficiency is not very high, so there form lot of waste heat, so it is good if electricity making and useful heat making is combined (CHP).
22.214.171.124.2.1.1 Based in combustion gas
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52Internal combustion Piston engines
184.108.40.206.2.1.2 Based in steam
If it is low pressure, or some other vaporizer than water, it is possible to rotate steam turbine also lower temperatures than 100 celsius. For example Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168Closed-cycle gas turbines
22.214.171.124.2.2.2 Harvesting move which is formed in Earth's heat engine
Earth's heat engine
Hydropower collect energy from downhill running water which rain is delivered to the ground higher than the sea level.
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.3Marine current power
Marine current power
184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.1Sail and kite
Like campfire, oil lamp or candle.
18.104.22.168.3.2.2 Glowing piece of hot material
Like in Incandescent light bulb
Electric discharge in gases
Fluorescence is a form of luminescence, common solution is fluorescent lamp.
Bioluminescence is light source in Glowworm and other light emitted living organism.
22.214.171.124.3.7.1 Radio waves
126.96.36.199.3.7.6 Gamma rays
188.8.131.52.3.7.7 Thermal radiation
See 184.108.40.206.2 how the move is making or harvesting.
220.127.116.11.4.1.1 Electric generators
18.104.22.168.4.2.2 Other radiation
22.214.171.124.4.3.1 Fuel cell
126.96.36.199.4.4.1 Thermoelectric effect
Word energy consumption is still largely dependent on fossil fuels (87% 2015). (When you look those statistics pay attention where there is talking about energy and where only electricity, and there is good to note also difference between primary energy and final energy consumption.)
Natural gas. Previously burned in torch in oilfields. Combination powerplant can be efficient, so they produce lot of electricity end not so much waste heat, see 188.8.131.52.2.1.3.
In the coming decades, as period of transition, we will possibly need also significantly nuclear power, but it is the best option to build those stations like those are build nowadays or is it better option to buid standardized power stations, and locate those out of sea and under the water.
Possibly in the future:
For example in seawater, deep and top.
Burning biomass produce heat so move and electricity can generate.
vuorovesi ja suolaisuus ja merien lämpötilaerot ym. ja edellä mainittu merivirta, on Marine power, mutta laita nämä mahdollisimman jaoteltuna, että jo pelkän tämän sivun perusteella saa mahdollisimman hyvän kuvan ja jaottelu tulevia ominaisuuksia ajatellen mahd.
Marine current power
Geothermal heat pump
Mainly energy from sun warmed soil. Problem is that geothermal heat pump heating need electricity and thats why it grow electricity peak consumption, in areas where is cold in the winter. Electrical grid and power station capasity have to build according with peak consumption.
Efficient energy use
Word energy consumption
That way divided there is dupications becouse heating, cooling and transportation are partly using electricity.
Did they have any wiser way to produce cooling, than by using electricity.
184.108.40.206.1.1.1 Environmental effects and energy efficiency as whole dipends how the electric is produced
220.127.116.11.1.1.2 How much more elecric production be needed
18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.1In best case energy efficiency as whole is very good
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.2Many ways to produse electric
184.108.40.206.1.1.3 Battery electric cars
220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1Car batterys as part of elecric storage infrastructure
22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199Is there enough battery materials
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206Charging infrastructure needed
220.127.116.11.1.1.4 Road-powered electric vehicle
Road-powered electric vehicle
Biogas in transport
Biogas in general see 18.104.22.168
(Gas bag vehicles Low-tech magazine)
Vacuum tube train
List of energy storage projects
Photocatalytic water splitting
Burning bioenergy sources when sun is not shining and heating is needed.
Molten salt technology
Seasonal thermal energy storage
Keeping water, soil and air clean and healthy. And environment comfortable to live. Ja kasvuolosuhteet ruualle ym.
According Grouping by Tukes (site only in finnish and swedish)
Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic (CMR) substances (link is to OSH WIKI)
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances
Microplastics Keskustelu usein sivuraiteilla, muovipusseista ym. ja uusiutuva ei aina parempi kuin (esim norsunluu kampa) Muovi ja sen poltto aika hyvä, siihen asti kun vaikkapa liikent polt suoraan, voi ajatella että muovipakkauksessa öljy vaan tekee yhden työn ennen kuin se poltetaan energiaksi, ja osuus kokonaiskulutuksesta ei kovin suuri?
Micro- and nanoplastics can bind and carry toxins with them.
Did those micro- or nanoplastics end up for example in human brains? According to this study (Lund university Sweden), it seems to end up fish brains. So there is important issue to study.
Ozone depletion, have been thiked that case was quite solved. But according to Nature journal (Nature 557, pages413–417 (2018)), there is an mysterious unexpected increace in global emissions of CFC-11.
Acid rain, I think situation is going in good direction, and mainly
According This is how the Earth works – philosophy, sufficient biodivercity is mainly that what is necessary to the survival and healt of humans.
According to historical examples, volcanic eruptions can cause the situation where there in the Earth are not normal amount of sunlight for years. That possibility (volcanic winter) is well worth preparing.
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