THIS IS

HOW

THE EARTH

WORKS


The overall picture of environmental sustainability




Juho Satti, entrepreneur

This is how the Earth works Group Oy

Northern Savonia Finland


juho.satti(at)thisishowtheearthworks.fi

+358 41 436 7272


Copyright © 2014-2017 by Juho Satti. All rights reserved.




Discussion on the environment is fragmented. It lacks an understanding of the full picture. When it comes to the environment, we can live on Earth for as long as the sun shines, provided that we take care of four things.


First, we must ensure that non-renewable raw materials and nutrients, the most critical of which will be phosphor in the near future, are circulating.


Second, we must make sure that renewable raw materials are used in line with growth.


Third, we must take care that energy is produced with renewable means. There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year.


Finally, fourth: when we make sure that chemicals, genetic engineering and nuclear radiation do not intervene too much with the health of our own, there are no faults as such a life.




In addition, technological development and the expected stagnation of global population growth within a few decates, will help to achieve the above goals.




Table of contents

1.Reuse of nutrients and non-renewable raw materials 1

1.1 Nutrients 1

1.1.1 Food 1

1.1.1.1 Current state 1

1.1.1.2 How to close the nutrient cycle 1

1.1.1.2.1 Eater 1

1.1.1.2.2 Farming 1

1.1.2 Other than food 1

1.1.2.1 Bioenergy, renewable materials 1

1.2 Non-renewable raw materials 1

1.2.1 Current state 1

1.2.2 How to close the cycle 1

2.Renewable raw materials are used in line with growth 1

2.1 Current state 1

2.1.1 Erosion 1

2.1.2 Desertification 1

2.1.3 Carbon escape from the soil 1

2.1.4 Nutrients 1

2.1.5 Overfishing 1

2.2 Sustainable boosting of grow 1

2.2.1 Biological nitrogen fixation 1

2.2.2 Nutrient cycling and nutrient adding 1

2.2.3 Adding carbon to soil 1

2.2.4 Water to the dry areas 1

2.2.4.1 Tying the humidity of the air 1

2.2.4.2 Using seawater and sun 1

2.2.5 Aquaculture and boosting grow conditions in seas and lakes 1

3.Energy is produced with renewable mean 1

3.1 Production source 1

3.1.1 Sun 1

3.1.1.1 Sun directly 1

3.1.1.1.1 Solar panels 1

3.1.1.1.2 Artificial photosynthesis 1

3.1.1.2 Bio 1

3.1.1.3 Wind and wave 1

3.1.1.4 Water 1

3.1.2 Energy efficiency 1

3.1.3 (Geothermal) 1

3.1.4 (Nuclear fusion) 1

3.2 Consumption source 2

3.2.1 Electricity 2

3.2.2 Heating and cooling 2

3.2.3 Transportation 2

3.2.3.1 Land transport 2

3.2.3.1.1 Cars 2

3.2.3.1.1.1 Electric cars 2

3.2.3.1.1.1.1 Battery electric cars 2

3.2.3.1.1.1.2 Road-powered electric vehicle 2

3.2.3.1.1.2 Biogas 2

3.2.3.1.1.3 Liquid biofuels 2

3.2.3.1.1.4 a Fuel cell 2

3.2.3.1.1.5 Hybrid 2

3.2.3.1.1.6 Self made 2

3.2.3.1.2 Trains and loops 2

3.2.3.1.3 Other vehicles 2

3.2.3.1.4 Shipping 2

3.2.3.1.5 Aviation 2

3.3 Storage means 2

3.3.1 Batteries 2

3.3.2 Produse gas- or liguid fuels by electricity 2

3.3.3 Timing of energy intencive manufacturing 2

3.3.4 Gravity 2

3.3.5 Bioenergy as a means of storage 2

3.3.6 Cold and heat storages 2

4.Healthy living environment 2

4.1 Chemicalisation 2

4.2 Nuclear radiation 2

4.3 Genetic modification 2




1.Reuse of nutrients and non-renewable raw materials

Nutrients and non-renewable raw materials are not run out, only what we have to do, is that we have to reuse them effectively.

1.1 Nutrients

Plants need nutrients and plants are food for us and farm animals. So nutrients means food, and thats why they are extra important. There are mineral nutrients and nitrogen. Nitrogen can cycle directly or through the air. Especially in the near future we should keep an eye on recycling phosphorus. Plant growth need phosphorus, and there is not substitute for it. Nowadays fertilizer phosphorus is digested from mines and there is not so much reserves left. So it is absolutely necessary learn to recycle phosphorus effectively, otherwise there is no food in the future. Nowadays there is not good enought practices about nutrients cycling.

1.1.1 Food

1.1.1.1 Current state

Nowadays in many countries and also globally breeding farm animals and fodder plant production are placed in separate areas, (This is in consequence of politics that does not take into account negative externalities, it is not farmers fault.) so it is not easy to bring nutrients back to the place of growth with animal manure. Other challenge is that although urban sewage include nutrients it include also harmful substances for example drug residues, detergents and PFOS:s, so it is not easy to recycle sewages nutrients back to field safely.

1.1.1.2 How to close the nutrient cycle

It can be that ecomies of scale in agriculture loses its benefits in the future for the impact of robotisation and becouse the nutrient cycling become more and more important. So when cheap robots do the job and externalities are taken into account, small scale livestock farming can be economically profitable again, It will help nutrients recycling.

In the future for example in vitro meat production and plant growth in bioreactors can maybe make even personal nutrient cycle possible. But in that case too sun energy have to first store in sugars and others energetic requirements which are needed in grow and production in bioreactors. Those energetic requirements can be prodused by photosynthesis, either natural photosynthesis or artificial photosynthesis.

What comes to sewage, atleast have to develop safer chemicals, and think possibilities of different collection system.

Using more biological nitrogen fixation will save energy, becouse industrial manufacturing of nitrogen need lot of energy. Some plants are ability to take nitrogen to the air. In the future one possibility might be to add this ability to other plants too through genetic modification. Or if there is available lot of cheap renewable energy industrial manufacturing of nitrogen is one option also in future.

Adding carbon to soil help nutrient cycling, and it also make soil better to tolerate drought and wetness. In addition it is one great potential way to prevent climate change.

1.1.1.2.1 Eater



1.1.1.2.2 Farming

1.1.2 Other than food

Nutrient recycling is important also when grown bioenergy plants and renewable materials. So for example after burning wood it is necessary to bring ash back to forest. There can be also possibilities to increase biological nitrogen fixation in the forests.

1.1.2.1 Bioenergy, renewable materials

1.2 Non-renewable raw materials

We can use non-renewable materials, metals, minerals and fossil based materials over and over again, so when we mine and use those materials, we have to make sure that we can reuse it again. But question is how we do it in paractice, how we increase the awareness and make pricing that take a notice negative externalities.

1.2.1 Current state

Too mutch non-renewable raw materials leaves the cycle.

1.2.2 How to close the cycle

2.Renewable raw materials are used in line with growth

We can use renewable materials as much as they grow, and if we can systainably boost growing, we can use more. This part is close connected with part 1.1 Nutrients. As renewable raw materials here I mean plants in fields and forests, fish stocks and products of animal origin. Renevable raw materials can be used as food, bioenergy and goods manufacturing materials.

2.1 Current state

2.1.1 Erosion

2.1.2 Desertification

2.1.3 Carbon escape from the soil

2.1.4 Nutrients

See section 1.1

2.1.5 Overfishing



2.2 Sustainable boosting of grow

2.2.1 Biological nitrogen fixation

2.2.2 Nutrient cycling and nutrient adding

2.2.3 Adding carbon to soil

2.2.4 Water to the dry areas

2.2.4.1 Tying the humidity of the air

2.2.4.2 Using seawater and sun

2.2.5 Aquaculture and boosting grow conditions in seas and lakes



3.Energy is produced with renewable mean

There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year. So how we catch and storage this energy better than novadays? One way to storage energy is that we produce those energy-intensive products like metals and nitrate fertilazers then when we have lot of energy. And use biofuels then when sun is not shining.

There is also own parts in geothermal energy and nuclear fusion although deep geothermal energy and nuclear fusion are not renewable.

3.1 Production source

3.1.1 Sun

3.1.1.1 Sun directly

3.1.1.1.1 Solar panels
3.1.1.1.2 Artificial photosynthesis

3.1.1.2 Bio

3.1.1.3 Wind and wave

3.1.1.4 Water

3.1.2 Energy efficiency

3.1.3 (Geothermal)

3.1.4 (Nuclear fusion)



3.2 Consumption source

3.2.1 Electricity

3.2.2 Heating and cooling

3.2.3 Transportation

3.2.3.1 Land transport

3.2.3.1.1 Cars
3.2.3.1.1.1 Electric cars

3.2.3.1.1.1.1 Battery electric cars

3.2.3.1.1.1.2 Road-powered electric vehicle

3.2.3.1.1.2 Biogas
3.2.3.1.1.3 Liquid biofuels
3.2.3.1.1.4 a Fuel cell
3.2.3.1.1.5 Hybrid
3.2.3.1.1.6 Self made
3.2.3.1.2 Trains and loops
3.2.3.1.3 Other vehicles
3.2.3.1.4 Shipping
3.2.3.1.5 Aviation



3.3 Storage means

3.3.1 Batteries

3.3.2 Produse gas- or liguid fuels by electricity

3.3.3 Timing of energy intencive manufacturing

3.3.4 Gravity

3.3.5 Bioenergy as a means of storage

Burning bioenergy sources when sun is not shining and heating is needed.

3.3.6 Cold and heat storages

4.Healthy living environment

Keeping water, soil and air clean and healthy.

4.1 Chemicalisation

4.2 Nuclear radiation

4.3 Genetic modification

Possibilities and threats





Copyright © 2014-2017 by Juho Satti. All rights reserved.