THIS IS

HOW THE EARTH

WORKS


The overall picture of environmental sustainability






Understanding wholeness -> visio -> hope -> purpose -> effective work ->*n-> effective world in important issues





Juho Satti, entrepreneur

This is how the Earth works Group Oy

Northern Savonia Finland

juho.satti(at)thisishowtheearthworks.fi

+358 41 436 7272



Copyright © 2014-2018 Juho Satti and This is how the Earth works Group Oy. All rights reserved.






Discussion on the environment is fragmented. It lacks an understanding of the full picture. When it comes to the environment, we can live on Earth for as long as the sun shines, provided that we take care of four things.


First, we must ensure that non-renewable raw materials and plant nutrients, the most critical of which will be phosphor in the near future, are circulating.


Second, we must make sure that renewable raw materials are used in line with growth.


Third, we must take care that energy is produced with renewable means. There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year.


Finally, fourth: when we make sure that chemicals, genetic engineering and nuclear radiation do not intervene too much with the health of our own, there are no faults as such a life.



In addition, technological development and the expected stagnation of global population growth within a few decates, will help to achieve the above goals.





Table of contents

Introduction to the This is how the Earth works – philosophy 8

A User's Guide for this webpage 10

1.Reuse of plant nutrients and non-renewable raw materials 11

1.1 Plant nutrients 11

1.1.1 Food 11

1.1.1.1 Current state 11

1.1.1.2 How to close the nutrient cycle 11

1.1.1.2.1 Eater 12

1.1.1.2.2 Farming 12

1.1.2 Other than food 12

1.1.2.1 Bioenergy, renewable materials 12

1.2 Non-renewable raw materials 12

1.2.1 Metals 12

1.2.2 Minerals 12

1.2.3 Plastics, petroleum based 12

1.2.3.1 In the current state, burning food packaging plastic in the right kind good power station is in many cases better option than recycling 12

1.2.4 Current state, reuse of non-renewable raw materials 13

1.2.5 How to close the cycle 13

2.Renewable raw materials are used in line with growth 13

2.1 Current state 13

2.1.1 In many places situation is quite a good, but those things below need always keep an eye on 13

2.1.1.1 Erosion 13

2.1.1.2 Desertification 13

2.1.1.3 Carbon escape from the soil 13

2.1.1.4 Nutrients 13

2.1.1.5 Overfishing 13

2.2 Sustainable boosting of grow 14

2.2.1 Biological nitrogen fixation 14

2.2.2 Nutrient cycling and nutrient adding 14

2.2.3 Adding carbon to soil 14

2.2.4 Water to the dry areas 14

2.2.4.1 Tying the humidity of the air 14

2.2.4.2 Using seawater and sun 14

2.2.5 Aquaculture and boosting grow conditions in seas and lakes 14

3.Energy is produced with renewable mean 14

3.1 Energy 15

3.1.1 Where energy come from, and direct natural effects 15

3.1.1.1 Sunshine 15

3.1.1.1.1 Heat 15

3.1.1.1.2 Light 15

3.1.1.2 Moon's and sun's gravitation 15

3.1.1.2.1 Tide 15

3.1.1.2.2 Crunching the Earths crust 15

3.1.1.2.3 Ocean currents (partly) 15

3.1.1.3 Atom 15

3.1.2 Why energy is needed 15

3.1.2.1 Life conditions on Earth 15

3.1.2.1.1 Heat and light from sun 15

3.1.2.1.1.1 Photosyntesis 15

3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Oxygen 16

3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1Ozone layer 16

3.1.2.1.1.1.2 Food 16

3.1.2.1.1.2 Rain 16

3.1.2.1.1.3 Wind 16

3.1.2.1.1.4 Ocean current 16

3.1.2.2 Human convert energy in forms what needed 16

3.1.2.2.1 Heat 16

3.1.2.2.2 Move 16

3.1.2.2.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation 16

3.1.2.2.4 Electricity 17

3.1.2.2.4.1 As way to move energy 17

3.1.2.2.4.2 Independent applications 17

3.1.2.2.4.2.1 Electronics 17

3.1.2.2.5 Energy use is just mainly combination of heating, moving, lighting and other electromagnetic radiation and electronics 17

3.1.2.3 The ways in which energy is convert into the necessary forms 17

3.1.2.3.1 Heat, making and harvesting 17

3.1.2.3.1.1 Burning 17

3.1.2.3.1.1.1 Fuels, sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17

3.1.2.3.1.1.1.1Bioenergy, new sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17

3.1.2.3.1.1.1.2Fossil fuels, old sun energy formed through photosynthesis 17

3.1.2.3.1.2 Harvesting sun heat 18

3.1.2.3.1.3 Atom 18

3.1.2.3.1.4 Friction 18

3.1.2.3.2 Move, making and harvesting 18

3.1.2.3.2.1 Making move through heat, heat engines 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.1 Based in combustion gas 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.1Internal combustion Piston engines 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.2Gas turbine 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.3Jet engine 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.2 Based in steam 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.2.1Steam engine 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.2.2Steam turbine 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.3 Combinations 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.3.1Closed-cycle gas turbines 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.4 Others 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.4.1Stirling engine 18

3.1.2.3.2.1.4.2Thermo-magnetic motor 19

3.1.2.3.2.2 Other than heat engines 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.1.1Molecular motor 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2 Harvesting move which is formed in Earth's heat engine 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1Moving water 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.1Hydropower 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.2Wavepower 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.3Marine current power 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2Moving air 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2.1Sail and kite 19

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2.2Wind power 19

3.1.2.3.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation, making 19

3.1.2.3.3.1 Light, making 19

3.1.2.3.3.2 Incandescent light 20

3.1.2.3.3.2.1 Flames 20

3.1.2.3.3.2.2 Glowing piece of hot material 20

3.1.2.3.3.3 Light-emitting diodes (LED) 20

3.1.2.3.3.4 Electric discharge in gases 20

3.1.2.3.3.5 Luminescence 20

3.1.2.3.3.5.1 Fluorescence 20

3.1.2.3.3.6 Chemiluminescence 20

3.1.2.3.3.6.1 Bioluminescence 20

3.1.2.3.3.7 Other electromagnetic radiation, making 20

3.1.2.3.3.7.1 Radio waves 20

3.1.2.3.3.7.2 Microwaves 20

3.1.2.3.3.7.3 Infrared 20

3.1.2.3.3.7.4 Ultraviolet 21

3.1.2.3.3.7.5 X-rays 21

3.1.2.3.3.7.6 Gamma rays 21

3.1.2.3.3.7.7 Thermal radiation 21

3.1.2.3.4 Electricity, making 21

3.1.2.3.4.1 Move rotating the generator 21

3.1.2.3.4.1.1 Electric generators 21

3.1.2.3.4.2 From radiation 22

3.1.2.3.4.2.1 Light 22

3.1.2.3.4.2.1.1Solar cell 22

3.1.2.3.4.2.2 Other radiation 22

3.1.2.3.4.2.2.1Betavoltaic device 22

3.1.2.3.4.3 From chemical reactions 22

3.1.2.3.4.3.1 Fuel cell 22

3.1.2.3.4.4 From the temperature differences 22

3.1.2.3.4.4.1 Thermoelectric effect 22

3.1.2.3.4.5 Piezoelectricity 22

3.1.2.3.4.6 Pyroelectricity 22

3.1.2.3.4.7 Galvanic cell 22

3.1.2.3.4.8 Triboelectric effect 22

3.2 Current state 22

3.2.1 World energy consumption (2015) 22

3.2.1.1 Oil (33%) 22

3.2.1.2 Coal (30%) 23

3.2.1.3 Natural Gas (24%) 23

3.2.1.4 Hydro (7%) 23

3.2.1.5 Nuclear (4%) 23

3.2.1.6 Others (Renewables) (2%) 23

3.3 Renewable production sources 23

3.3.1 Sun 23

3.3.1.1 Sun directly 23

3.3.1.1.1 Solar power 23

3.3.1.1.2 Artificial photosynthesis 24

3.3.1.1.3 Solar thermal collectors 24

3.3.1.1.4 Temperature differences 24

3.3.1.2 Bio 24

3.3.1.3 Wave 24

3.3.1.4 Wind 24

3.3.1.5 Hydro 24

3.3.1.6 Tidal 24

3.3.1.7 Marine current 24

3.3.1.8 Marine power 24

3.3.1.9 Geothermal heat pump 24

3.3.2 Energy efficiency 25

3.3.3 (Geothermal) 25

3.3.4 DIY Home made renewable energy 25

3.4 Consumption source of energy 25

3.4.1 Primary sector 26

3.4.1.1 Farm 26

3.4.1.2 Forestry 26

3.4.1.3 Mining, include also oil and gas 26

3.4.2 Housing 26

3.4.2.1 Heating and cooling 26

3.4.2.2 Lighting 26

3.4.2.3 Cookery 26

3.4.2.4 Bath 26

3.4.2.5 Laundering 26

3.4.2.6 Communication, media and entertainment 26

3.4.3 Manufacture of goods 26

3.4.3.1 Food 26

3.4.3.2 Clothes 26

3.4.3.3 Furnitures 26

3.4.3.4 Tools 26

3.4.3.4.1 Widely, from fork to wrench and from computer to industry robot 26

3.4.3.5 Means of transport 26

3.4.4 Building 26

3.4.4.1 Buildings 26

3.4.4.2 Roads 26

3.4.4.3 Water pipes 26

3.4.4.4 Electrical grid 26

3.4.4.5 Communication networks 27

3.4.4.6 Other infrastructure 27

3.4.5 Transportation 27

3.4.5.1 People 27

3.4.5.1.1 Everyday 27

3.4.5.1.2 Business trips 27

3.4.5.1.3 Holidays 27

3.4.5.2 Raw materials 27

3.4.5.3 Goods 27

3.4.5.3.1 Food 27

3.4.5.3.2 Drinks, include bottled water 27

3.4.5.3.3 Other 27

3.4.5.4 Information and communication 27

3.4.6 Services 27

3.4.6.1 Security 27

3.4.6.2 Healt care 27

3.4.6.3 Education 27

3.4.6.4 Entertainment 27

3.5 Other way divided 27

3.5.1 Electricity 27

3.5.2 Heating and cooling 28

3.5.2.1 World energy consumption in heating 28

3.5.2.2 World energy consumption in cooling 28

3.5.3 Transportation 28

3.5.3.1 World energy consumption in people transport 28

3.5.3.2 World energy consumption in material and goods cargo 28

3.5.4 How to replace fossil fuels in transport 28

3.5.4.1 Land transport 28

3.5.4.1.1 Cars 28

3.5.4.1.1.1 Electric cars 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.1 Environmental effects and energy efficiency as whole dipends how the electric is produced 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.2 How much more elecric production be needed 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1Benefits 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1.1In best case energy efficiency as whole is very good 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1.2Many ways to produse electric 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.3 Battery electric cars 28

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.1Benefits 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.1.1Car batterys as part of elecric storage infrastructure 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.2Challenges 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.3Is there enough battery materials 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.4Charging infrastructure needed 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.4 Road-powered electric vehicle 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.4.1Benefits 29

3.5.4.1.1.1.4.2Challenges 29

3.5.4.1.1.2 Biogas 29

3.5.4.1.1.2.1.1Benefits 29

3.5.4.1.1.2.1.2Challenges 29

3.5.4.1.1.3 Liquid biofuels 29

3.5.4.1.1.3.1.1Benefits 29

3.5.4.1.1.3.1.2Challenges 29

3.5.4.1.1.4 a Fuel cell 29

3.5.4.1.1.4.1.1Benefits 30

3.5.4.1.1.4.1.2Challenges 30

3.5.4.1.1.5 Hybrids 30

3.5.4.1.1.5.1.1Benefits 30

3.5.4.1.1.5.1.2Challenges 30

3.5.4.1.1.6 Self made 30

3.5.4.1.2 Trains and loops 30

3.5.4.1.3 Other vehicles 30

3.5.4.2 Shipping 30

3.5.4.3 Aviation 30

3.6 Storage means 30

3.6.1 Batteries 30

3.6.2 Produse gas- or liguid fuels by electricity 30

3.6.3 Produse fuels by artificial photosyntesis 31

3.6.4 Timing of energy intencive manufacturing and other ways to minimize need to energy storage 31

3.6.5 Gravity 31

3.6.6 Bioenergy as a means of storage 31

3.6.7 Cold and heat storages 31

3.7 Other greenhouse gases 31

4.Healthy living environment 31

4.1 Chemicalisation 31

4.1.1 Chemical 31

4.1.1.1 Chemicals, pros and cons 31

4.1.1.2 What kind of healthy effects? 31

4.1.1.3 Chemical groups 31

4.1.1.3.1 Biocides 31

4.1.1.3.2 Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic (CMR) substances 31

4.1.1.3.3 Formaldehyde 32

4.1.1.3.4 Phthalate 32

4.1.1.3.5 Endocrine disruptor 32

4.1.1.3.6 Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs) 32

4.1.2 Chemicals applications 32

4.2 Microplastics 32

4.2.1 As collector of toxins 32

4.2.2 Possible Independent healt effects 32

4.3 Otzone depletion 32

4.4 Acidification 33

4.4.1 Acid rain 33

4.4.2 Ocean acidification 33

4.5 Sufficient biodiversity 33

4.6 Nuclear radiation 33

4.6.1 Accidents 33

4.6.1.1 The consequences are serious but are they so serious and wide that at least I have been thought 33

4.6.2 Nuclear waste 33

4.6.2.1 Radiation last long but does it last dangerous so long as at least I have been thought 33

4.7 Genetic modification 33

4.7.1 Possibilities 34

4.7.2 Threats 34

4.8 Preparing for sudden changes 34

4.8.1 Volcanic winter 34

Terms of Use 34




Introduction to the This is how the Earth works – philosophy

Overall pictures from world, made in Northern Savonia, Finland

Regards from Northern Savonia, Finland. Here we live, work, think, contemplate, implement and operate middle of wide forests, lakes and hills. Those forest include also quite sparse network of villages and towns. Here in Eastern Finland countryside is space to think. And people who can see the bigger picture.

Biggest problem in the world and how we solve it

Nowadays it is way too difficult to see big picture. And that is why it is too difficult to construct a clear enought vision to the future worth of pursuit. Whitout good visions, problems of the world may seem to be more difficult to solve, than they maybe really are. That is why future seems easily too hopeless for many people, atleast in western countries. And when world situation seems too hopeless it is difficult to find motivation to work for a better future. Hopeless is main reason to lack of motivation, and it is cause of massive loss of human potential, again, atleast here in western countries. So we make easier to see the bigger picture and that way to make better future seems possible. That is needed that enough big part of people get excited to build a better future worldwide. Environmental sustainable future is most important and most excited task to our time so that is why it is topic of this our first overall picture page.

Point of view in this page is keep and make human living conditions good now and in the future. So we do not for example protect too much wolfs and we have not too conserned about biodiversity, but we are interest in biodiversity when it means more healthy, safer or more comfortable human living conditions.

We also think (at the moment we are me and my Ltd):


0n the 19th of May 2018

Best Regards

Juho Satti

entrepreneur, This is how the Earth works Group Oy

LL.M, Business Student

member of The Centre Party of Finland

reservist lieutenant, The Finnish Border Guard, guerrilla



A User's Guide for this webpage


Make sure that you understand that first four-point grouping. Pay attention to connections between those four point, for example there is no need to mention heavy metal pollution in point four, becouse point one already stop those.


Before reading page further, pay attention to the table of contents, there you can see those groupings of different things, and wholeness what is consist of those groupings. And during read webpage further, go often back to table of contents, so you can keep overall picture in the mind.


This four-point grouping is ideal, but world need goal, it is very important to understand how world (earth+human) will work in ideal situation, but of course there will be long transitional period.


Webpage is under constuction, so there is not writing or links under every titles.


Idea is that there in this webpage might be some more functionalities and some more text around this table of contents in the future. Links in this page go mainly to Wikipedia pages, please read Wikipedia's Terms of Use before use Wikipedia. This thisishowtheearthworks.fi webpage's Terms of Use's you find in bottom of this page.


There is no any public financial support or other finansial support (atleast in this point 19.05.2018) get, to do this webpage and its content.


If your organisation might need some consulting- or training service in themes of this webpage, please call +358 41 436 7272 or send an email juho.satti(at)thisishowtheearthworks.fi ((at) = @).











1.Reuse of plant nutrients and non-renewable raw materials

Plant nutrients and non-renewable raw materials are not run out, only what we have to do, is that we have to reuse them effectively.

1.1 Plant nutrients

Plants need nutrients and plants are food for us and farm animals. So nutrients means food, and that is why they are extra important. There are mineral nutrients and nitrogen. Nitrogen can cycle directly or through the air. Especially in the near future we should keep an eye on recycling phosphorus. Plant growth need phosphorus, and there is not substitute for it. Nowadays fertilizer phosphorus is digested from mines and there is not so much useful reserves left. So it is necessary learn to recycle phosphorus effectively. Nowadays there is not good enought practices about nutrients cycling.

Plant nutrition

1.1.1 Food

1.1.1.1 Current state

Nowadays in many countries and also globally breeding farm animals and fodder plant production are placed in separate areas, (This is in consequence of politics that does not take into account negative externalities, it is not farmers fault.) so it is not easy to bring nutrients back to the place of growth with animal manure. Other challenge is that although urban sewage include nutrients it include also harmful substances for example drug residues, detergents and PFOS:s, so it is not easy to recycle sewages nutrients back to field safely. It is absolutely necessary to keep agricultural soil clean.

1.1.1.2 How to close the nutrient cycle

It can be that ecomies of scale in agriculture loses its benefits in the future for the impact of robotisation and becouse the nutrient cycling become more and more important. So when cheap robots do the job and externalities are taken into account, small scale livestock farming can be economically profitable again, It will help nutrients recycling.

In the future for example in vitro meat production and plant growth in bioreactors can maybe make even personal nutrient cycle possible. But in that case too sun energy have to first store in sugars and others energetic requirements which are needed in grow and production in bioreactors. Those energetic requirements can be prodused by photosynthesis (see 3.1.2.1.1.1) either natural photosynthesis or artificial photosynthesis. Or some microbes can also multibly by using hydrogen as energy. And hydrogen can be produced electrically, like in this link. At least nowadays traditional field farming is in many cases quite effective way to exploit photosynthesis and produce food, due to big part of the work is done by ecosystem services like sunshine, rainwater and pollination, and so much devices are not needed.

What comes to sewage, atleast have to develop safer chemicals, and think possibilities of different collection system.

Using more biological nitrogen fixation will save energy, becouse industrial manufacturing of nitrogen need lot of energy. Some plants are ability to take nitrogen to the air. Or if there is available lot of cheap renewable energy industrial manufacturing of nitrogen is one option also in future.

Adding carbon to soil help nutrient cycling, and it also make soil better to tolerate drought and wetness. In addition it is one great potential way to prevent climate change.

1.1.1.2.1 Eater



1.1.1.2.2 Farming

1.1.2 Other than food

Nutrient recycling is important also when grown bioenergy plants and renewable materials. So for example after burning wood it is necessary to bring ash back to forest. But in this case too have to be sure, that there is no harmful substances in that ash. There can be also possibilities to increase biological nitrogen fixation in the forests.

1.1.2.1 Bioenergy, renewable materials

1.2 Non-renewable raw materials

We can use non-renewable materials, metals, minerals and fossil based materials over and over again, so when we mine and use those materials, we have to make sure that we can reuse it again. But question is how we do it in paractice, how we increase the awareness and make pricing that take a notice negative externalities.

1.2.1 Metals

1.2.2 Minerals

1.2.3 Plastics, petroleum based

1.2.3.1 In the current state, burning food packaging plastic in the right kind good power station is in many cases better option than recycling

But power station need to be just right kind that burning household waste do not create for example dioxins, very harmful toxics.So have to be very careful what waste to burn and what kind of incinerator.

1.2.4 Current state, reuse of non-renewable raw materials

Too mutch non-renewable raw materials leaves the cycle.



But in some cases low recycling rate do not mean that those materials are lost, for example lot of old mobile phones are in people homes, those materials are not lost.

1.2.5 How to close the cycle

Pricing, recycle frendly desing, taxes, laws, awareness...



2.Renewable raw materials are used in line with growth

We can use renewable materials as much as they grow, and if we can systainably boost growing, we can use more. This part is close connected with part 1.1 Nutrients. As renewable raw materials here I mean plants in fields and forests, fish stocks and products of animal origin. Renevable raw materials can be used as food, bioenergy and goods manufacturing materials.

2.1 Current state

2.1.1 In many places situation is quite a good, but those things below need always keep an eye on

2.1.1.1 Erosion

There is different kind of soils, shape of terrains, heavyness of rain, dryness et al. in the different parts of world so somewhere have to be very careful that soil do not go with water or wind.

Erosion

2.1.1.2 Desertification

Desertification

2.1.1.3 Carbon escape from the soil

2.1.1.4 Nutrients

See section 1.1

2.1.1.5 Overfishing

Overfishing

Tragedy of the commons

2.2 Sustainable boosting of grow

2.2.1 Biological nitrogen fixation

Biological nitrogen fixation

2.2.2 Nutrient cycling and nutrient adding

2.2.3 Adding carbon to soil

It is not easy to create long lasting below ground carbon, in many cases carbon escape during some years or so., but not in every cases.

terra preta

2.2.4 Water to the dry areas

Sounds utopistic at first, but there is some projects going on. Sahara have not been always desert.

2.2.4.1 Tying the humidity of the air

Trees

Others

2.2.4.2 Using seawater and sun

2.2.5 Aquaculture and boosting grow conditions in seas and lakes

Aquaculture

And how water temperature in seas affect to growth of algae. James Lovelock write in his book the revenge of Gaia that seas warming might reduces the growth of algae.



3.Energy is produced with renewable mean

There are opportunities for this, as the amount of energy that the sun radiates on Earth in one hour corresponds with the energy consumption of the humankind in one year. So how we catch and storage this energy better than nowadays?

Meanwhile we learn to exploit and storage renewable energy better than nowadays world might need also nuclear power, but is it wise to build those plants as they are build now, or is it better to build those power stations out at sea, floating or submarine. Then possible radiation diluted in huge mass of water.

3.1 Energy

3.1.1 Where energy come from, and direct natural effects

3.1.1.1 Sunshine

Sun

3.1.1.1.1 Heat
3.1.1.1.2 Light

3.1.1.2 Moon's and sun's gravitation

3.1.1.2.1 Tide
3.1.1.2.2 Crunching the Earths crust

Some little part of deep geothermal energy.

3.1.1.2.3 Ocean currents (partly)

3.1.1.3 Atom

Radioactive decay of some materials are going on in Earth crust and it made part of deep geothermal heat. Third source of geothermal heat is from the formation of the Earth.

Sun energy is formed in nuclear reaction too.

3.1.2 Why energy is needed

3.1.2.1 Life conditions on Earth

3.1.2.1.1 Heat and light from sun

Without sun, planet Earth would be cold and dark place without oxygen and food. So most important energy is heat and light from sun.

3.1.2.1.1.1 Photosyntesis

Phptosyntesis is important becouse though photosyntesis here is oxygen to breath and food to eat.

3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Oxygen

3.1.2.1.1.1.1.1Ozone layer

Sun ultraviolet light make otzon from oxygen, and ozone layer protect us and other live against too much ultraviolet light from sun.

3.1.2.1.1.1.2 Food

3.1.2.1.1.2 Rain

Plants need water and rain deliver it. Sun dissipate water and clouds be born Rain is reason why we get also groundwater to drink.

3.1.2.1.1.3 Wind

Wind carry the rain clouds in the different areas. Air flows also carry otzone to north and south parts of earth. Big part of ozone are formed near to the equator, becouse there is lot of ultraviolet light. In their own part winds also smoothes temperature differences in the planet.

3.1.2.1.1.4 Ocean current

Ocean currents smoothes temperature differences in the Earth. There is many forces that make that seawater movement. The rotation of the Earth turns ocean currents so thats one reason why they flow smoothly. In addition the tilt angle of the Earths axis is also big reason to the relatively low temperature differences in other parts of Earth, and it is the reason too why we have seasons.

3.1.2.2 Human convert energy in forms what needed

Human collect and convert energy to its own needs. Body energy come from food. And human convert also other energy sources when outside the body heat, move and light is needed.

3.1.2.2.1 Heat

When sun is not heating enough it is time to make campfire, or turn on some more sofphisticated heating system. And when sun heating too much, there might be reason to cooling, but cooling is made from heat too, through evaporation.

3.1.2.2.2 Move

Human have invented ways to move itself or goods also whitout using muscles. Also ways to move data faraway and back are developed.

3.1.2.2.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation

When sun is not lighting we need some other light. And there is some other ways to use ligth too, like data moving in optical fiber.

Other electromagnetic radiation than light are used for example moving data wirelessly through the air. And microwave ovens, and radiography.

3.1.2.2.4 Electricity
3.1.2.2.4.1 As way to move energy

Electricity is handy way to transport energy,via electrical grid. Electric current is in itself move too, charged particles move. Electricity is easy to transform to heat, move and light when those needed. Atleast novadays electricity is not easy to store.

3.1.2.2.4.2 Independent applications

In addition there is some independent applications in electricity too, like electronics. Is there some other independen applications? Atleast electric fence to keep cows on the pasture.

3.1.2.2.4.2.1 Electronics

Electronics

3.1.2.2.5 Energy use is just mainly combination of heating, moving, lighting and other electromagnetic radiation and electronics

There is not finally so many ways to use energy. When goods are manufacturing, you can shape metals and polymers by using heat and move. You can saw logs as boards and planks by using move. And by using electronics, those things can made by not using human brains in every single time. And when we need to move data, we do it by using light or other electromagnetic radiation.

3.1.2.3 The ways in which energy is convert into the necessary forms

3.1.2.3.1 Heat, making and harvesting
3.1.2.3.1.1 Burning

3.1.2.3.1.1.1 Fuels, sun energy formed through photosynthesis

Burning fuels are formed through photosynthesis.

3.1.2.3.1.1.1.1Bioenergy, new sun energy formed through photosynthesis

New sun energy, formed through photosynthesis, durin last summer or in the past decades. When used it is necessary to take care about nutrient cycling.

3.1.2.3.1.1.1.2Fossil fuels, old sun energy formed through photosynthesis

Fossil fuels, very old sun energy also formed through photosynthesis.

3.1.2.3.1.2 Harvesting sun heat
3.1.2.3.1.3 Atom

Nuclear reactions release nuclear energy which are used to generate heat.

3.1.2.3.1.4 Friction

Friction

3.1.2.3.2 Move, making and harvesting
3.1.2.3.2.1 Making move through heat, heat engines

Last hundred – two hundred years and still nowadays transport and making electricity are strongly based in fossil fuels and Heat engines. Heat engines force usually moving cars, and spin many electric generators. Heat engines efficiency is not very high, so there form lot of waste heat, so it is good if electricity making and useful heat making is combined (CHP).

3.1.2.3.2.1.1 Based in combustion gas

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.1Internal combustion Piston engines

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.2Gas turbine

3.1.2.3.2.1.1.3Jet engine

3.1.2.3.2.1.2 Based in steam

3.1.2.3.2.1.2.1Steam engine

3.1.2.3.2.1.2.2Steam turbine

If it is low pressure, or some other vaporizer than water, it is possible to rotate steam turbine also lower temperatures than 100 celsius. For example Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC).

3.1.2.3.2.1.3 Combinations

3.1.2.3.2.1.3.1Closed-cycle gas turbines

Combined cycle

3.1.2.3.2.1.4 Others

3.1.2.3.2.1.4.1Stirling engine

Stirling engine

3.1.2.3.2.1.4.2Thermo-magnetic motor

Thermo-magnetic motor

3.1.2.3.2.2 Other than heat engines

3.1.2.3.2.2.1.1Molecular motor

Molecular motor

3.1.2.3.2.2.2 Harvesting move which is formed in Earth's heat engine

Earth's heat engine

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1Moving water

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.1Hydropower

Hydropower collect energy from downhill running water which rain is delivered to the ground higher than the sea level.

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.2Wavepower

Wavepower

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.1.3Marine current power

Marine current power

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2Moving air

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2.1Sail and kite

Sail. Kite.

3.1.2.3.2.2.2.2.2Wind power

Wind power



3.1.2.3.3 Light and other electromagnetic radiation, making
3.1.2.3.3.1 Light, making

Light sources

3.1.2.3.3.2 Incandescent light

3.1.2.3.3.2.1 Flames

Like campfire, oil lamp or candle.

3.1.2.3.3.2.2 Glowing piece of hot material

Like in Incandescent light bulb

3.1.2.3.3.3 Light-emitting diodes (LED)

Light-emitting diode

3.1.2.3.3.4 Electric discharge in gases

Electric discharge in gases

3.1.2.3.3.5 Luminescence

Luminescence

3.1.2.3.3.5.1 Fluorescence

Fluorescence is a form of luminescence, common solution is fluorescent lamp.



3.1.2.3.3.6 Chemiluminescence

Chemiluminescence

3.1.2.3.3.6.1 Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence is light source in Glowworm and other light emitted living organism.

3.1.2.3.3.7 Other electromagnetic radiation, making

3.1.2.3.3.7.1 Radio waves

Radio waves

3.1.2.3.3.7.2 Microwaves

Microwaves

3.1.2.3.3.7.3 Infrared

Infrared

3.1.2.3.3.7.4 Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet

3.1.2.3.3.7.5 X-rays

X-rays

3.1.2.3.3.7.6 Gamma rays

Gamma rays

3.1.2.3.3.7.7 Thermal radiation

Thermal radiation



3.1.2.3.4 Electricity, making

Electricity

Electricity generation

Electric power

3.1.2.3.4.1 Move rotating the generator

See 3.1.2.3.2 how the move is making or harvesting.

3.1.2.3.4.1.1 Electric generators

Electric generator


Electrostatic generator


3.1.2.3.4.2 From radiation

3.1.2.3.4.2.1 Light

3.1.2.3.4.2.1.1Solar cell

3.1.2.3.4.2.2 Other radiation

3.1.2.3.4.2.2.1Betavoltaic device

3.1.2.3.4.3 From chemical reactions

3.1.2.3.4.3.1 Fuel cell

3.1.2.3.4.4 From the temperature differences

3.1.2.3.4.4.1 Thermoelectric effect

3.1.2.3.4.5 Piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity

3.1.2.3.4.6 Pyroelectricity

Pyroelectricity

3.1.2.3.4.7 Galvanic cell

Galvanic cell

3.1.2.3.4.8 Triboelectric effect

Triboelectric effect

3.2 Current state

3.2.1 World energy consumption (2015)

Word energy consumption is still largely dependent on fossil fuels (87% 2015). (When you look those statistics pay attention where there is talking about energy and where only electricity, and there is good to note also difference between primary energy and final energy consumption.)

3.2.1.1 Oil (33%)

Petroleum.

3.2.1.2 Coal (30%)

Coal

3.2.1.3 Natural Gas (24%)

Natural gas. Previously burned in torch in oilfields. Combination powerplant can be efficient, so they produce lot of electricity end not so much waste heat, see 3.1.2.3.2.1.3.

3.2.1.4 Hydro (7%)

Hydropower

3.2.1.5 Nuclear (4%)

Nuclear power.

Nuclear fission

In the coming decades, as period of transition, we will possibly need also significantly nuclear power, but it is the best option to build those stations like those are build nowadays or is it better option to buid standardized power stations, and locate those out of sea and under the water.



(Atomic battery)



Possibly in the future:

Fusion power

Nuclear fusion

3.2.1.6 Others (Renewables) (2%)



3.3 Renewable production sources

3.3.1 Sun

3.3.1.1 Sun directly

3.3.1.1.1 Solar power

Solar power

3.3.1.1.2 Artificial photosynthesis

Artificial photosynthesis

3.3.1.1.3 Solar thermal collectors
3.3.1.1.4 Temperature differences

For example in seawater, deep and top.

3.3.1.2 Bio

Burning biomass produce heat so move and electricity can generate.

Biogas

Anaerobic digestion

3.3.1.3 Wave

Wavepower

3.3.1.4 Wind

Windpower

3.3.1.5 Hydro

Hydropower

vuorovesi ja suolaisuus ja merien lämpötilaerot ym. ja edellä mainittu merivirta, on Marine power, mutta laita nämä mahdollisimman jaoteltuna, että jo pelkän tämän sivun perusteella saa mahdollisimman hyvän kuvan ja jaottelu tulevia ominaisuuksia ajatellen mahd.



3.3.1.6 Tidal

Tidal power

3.3.1.7 Marine current

Marine current power

3.3.1.8 Marine power

Marine power

3.3.1.9 Geothermal heat pump

Geothermal heat pump

Mainly energy from sun warmed soil. Problem is that geothermal heat pump heating need electricity and thats why it grow electricity peak consumption, in areas where is cold in the winter. Electrical grid and power station capasity have to build according with peak consumption.

3.3.2 Energy efficiency

Efficient energy use

3.3.3 (Geothermal)

Geothermal energy

3.3.4 DIY Home made renewable energy

3.4 Consumption source of energy

Word energy consumption

3.4.1 Primary sector

3.4.1.1 Farm

3.4.1.2 Forestry

3.4.1.3 Mining, include also oil and gas

3.4.2 Housing

3.4.2.1 Heating and cooling

3.4.2.2 Lighting

3.4.2.3 Cookery

3.4.2.4 Bath

3.4.2.5 Laundering

3.4.2.6 Communication, media and entertainment

3.4.3 Manufacture of goods

3.4.3.1 Food

3.4.3.2 Clothes

3.4.3.3 Furnitures

3.4.3.4 Tools

3.4.3.4.1 Widely, from fork to wrench and from computer to industry robot

3.4.3.5 Means of transport

3.4.4 Building

3.4.4.1 Buildings

3.4.4.2 Roads

3.4.4.3 Water pipes

3.4.4.4 Electrical grid

3.4.4.5 Communication networks

3.4.4.6 Other infrastructure

3.4.5 Transportation

3.4.5.1 People

3.4.5.1.1 Everyday
3.4.5.1.2 Business trips
3.4.5.1.3 Holidays

3.4.5.2 Raw materials

3.4.5.3 Goods

3.4.5.3.1 Food
3.4.5.3.2 Drinks, include bottled water
3.4.5.3.3 Other

3.4.5.4 Information and communication

3.4.6 Services

3.4.6.1 Security

3.4.6.2 Healt care

3.4.6.3 Education

3.4.6.4 Entertainment

3.5 Other way divided

3.5.1 Electricity



That way divided there is dupications becouse heating, cooling and transportation are partly using electricity.

Electricity

Electricity generation

Electric power

3.5.2 Heating and cooling

3.5.2.1 World energy consumption in heating

3.5.2.2 World energy consumption in cooling

Did they have any wiser way to produce cooling, than by using electricity.

3.5.3 Transportation

3.5.3.1 World energy consumption in people transport

3.5.3.2 World energy consumption in material and goods cargo



3.5.4 How to replace fossil fuels in transport

3.5.4.1 Land transport

3.5.4.1.1 Cars

Car

3.5.4.1.1.1 Electric cars

3.5.4.1.1.1.1 Environmental effects and energy efficiency as whole dipends how the electric is produced

3.5.4.1.1.1.2 How much more elecric production be needed

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1.1In best case energy efficiency as whole is very good

3.5.4.1.1.1.2.1.2Many ways to produse electric



3.5.4.1.1.1.3 Battery electric cars

Electric car

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.1.1Car batterys as part of elecric storage infrastructure

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.2Challenges

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.3Is there enough battery materials

3.5.4.1.1.1.3.4Charging infrastructure needed



3.5.4.1.1.1.4 Road-powered electric vehicle

Road-powered electric vehicle

3.5.4.1.1.1.4.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.1.4.2Challenges



3.5.4.1.1.2 Biogas

Biogas in transport

Biogas in general see 3.1.1.2

(Gas bag vehicles Low-tech magazine)

3.5.4.1.1.2.1.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.2.1.2Challenges



3.5.4.1.1.3 Liquid biofuels

3.5.4.1.1.3.1.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.3.1.2Challenges



3.5.4.1.1.4 a Fuel cell

Fuel cell

3.5.4.1.1.4.1.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.4.1.2Challenges

3.5.4.1.1.5 Hybrids

3.5.4.1.1.5.1.1Benefits

3.5.4.1.1.5.1.2Challenges

3.5.4.1.1.6 Self made



3.5.4.1.2 Trains and loops

Vacuum tube train

3.5.4.1.3 Other vehicles

3.5.4.2 Shipping

3.5.4.3 Aviation



3.6 Storage means

List of energy storage projects

3.6.1 Batteries

Battery

3.6.2 Produse gas- or liguid fuels by electricity

Electrofuel

Solar fuel

Photocatalytic water splitting

3.6.3 Produse fuels by artificial photosyntesis

3.6.4 Timing of energy intencive manufacturing and other ways to minimize need to energy storage

3.6.5 Gravity

3.6.6 Bioenergy as a means of storage

Burning bioenergy sources when sun is not shining and heating is needed.

3.6.7 Cold and heat storages

Molten salt technology

Seasonal thermal energy storage

3.7 Other greenhouse gases



4.Healthy living environment

Keeping water, soil and air clean and healthy. And environment comfortable to live. Ja kasvuolosuhteet ruualle ym.

4.1 Chemicalisation

4.1.1 Chemical

4.1.1.1 Chemicals, pros and cons

4.1.1.2 What kind of healthy effects?

4.1.1.3 Chemical groups

According Grouping by Tukes (site only in finnish and swedish)

4.1.1.3.1 Biocides

Biocide

4.1.1.3.2 Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic (CMR) substances

Carcinogenic, mutagenic, reprotoxic (CMR) substances (link is to OSH WIKI)


4.1.1.3.3 Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde

4.1.1.3.4 Phthalate

Phthalate

4.1.1.3.5 Endocrine disruptor

Endocrine disruptor


4.1.1.3.6 Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances (PBTs)

Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substances



4.1.2 Chemicals applications



4.2 Microplastics

Microplastics Keskustelu usein sivuraiteilla, muovipusseista ym. ja uusiutuva ei aina parempi kuin (esim norsunluu kampa) Muovi ja sen poltto aika hyvä, siihen asti kun vaikkapa liikent polt suoraan, voi ajatella että muovipakkauksessa öljy vaan tekee yhden työn ennen kuin se poltetaan energiaksi, ja osuus kokonaiskulutuksesta ei kovin suuri?

4.2.1 As collector of toxins

Micro- and nanoplastics can bind and carry toxins with them.

4.2.2 Possible Independent healt effects

Did those micro- or nanoplastics end up for example in human brains? According to this study (Lund university Sweden), it seems to end up fish brains. So there is important issue to study.



4.3 Otzone depletion

Ozone depletion, have been thiked that case was quite solved. But according to Nature journal (Nature 557, pages413–417 (2018)), there is an mysterious unexpected increace in global emissions of CFC-11.

4.4 Acidification

4.4.1 Acid rain

Acid rain, I think situation is going in good direction, and mainly

4.4.2 Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification



4.5 Sufficient biodiversity



According This is how the Earth works – philosophy, sufficient biodivercity is mainly that what is necessary to the survival and healt of humans.

4.6 Nuclear radiation

Radiation

4.6.1 Accidents

4.6.1.1 The consequences are serious but are they so serious and wide that at least I have been thought

4.6.2 Nuclear waste

4.6.2.1 Radiation last long but does it last dangerous so long as at least I have been thought

4.7 Genetic modification

Genetic engineering



CRISPR Cas9

4.7.1 Possibilities

4.7.2 Threats

4.8 Preparing for sudden changes

4.8.1 Volcanic winter

According to historical examples, volcanic eruptions can cause the situation where there in the Earth are not normal amount of sunlight for years. That possibility (volcanic winter) is well worth preparing.





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